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Makena is the only drug to date that has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for preventing recurrent preterm births. Makena’s chemical compund name is 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P) and it was approved by the FDA in 2011.
Although marketed as legal or safe alternatives to marijuana, synthetic cannabinoids, also known as “K2” or “spice,” have highly toxic effects in their users, in stark contrast to regular marijuana. Scientists at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences recount the adverse effects produced by these compounds, which probably activate various receptors, in their review of existing research on synthetic cannabinoids.
Options for treatment of chronic pain remain limited to drugs that may be marginally effective or potentially addictive. Sufferers also deal with side effects of their medications along with the prospect of increased drug tolerance.
Formerly dismissed as mere by-products from cellular metabolic activities, extracellular vesicles are now regarded as potential biomarkers in diseases such as pancreatic cancer. These vesicles transfer nucleic acids, proteins and lipids, resulting in modifications of both parent and target cells. In the case of tumor-derived extracellular vesicles, target cells are changed so that they comprise an environment favorable for tumor invasion and growth.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are naturally occurring chemicals released by the combustion of organic matter, including wood, coal, oil and gasoline. As a result of increased biofuel consumption in recent years, PAHs have become major pollutants in the atmosphere and 15 PAHs have been identified as carcinogens.
Mindfulness, a moment-to-moment awareness of one’s current internal and external experience, has increasingly gained traction as a psychotherapeutic tool in emotion regulation.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), according to the World Health Organization (WHO), is projected to be one of the three leading causes of premature disability and mortality by 2030. However even if 100 percent of MDD patients utilized currently available evidence-based treatments, two-thirds of the people suffering from the disorder, according to one estimate, would still remain untreated.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a “black box” warning , the most serious type of warning, in Oct. 2004, alerting clinicians about the increased risk of suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior in children and adolescents treated with antidepressants.
Neuromodulation techniques, as opposed to standard pharmacological methods, have enabled the direct and localized revitalization of malfunctioning neuronal circuits. Treatment via neuromodulation has been applied to various conditions including neurological disorders, chronic pain and, as of most recently, in disorders of consciousness.
Deaths resulting from drug overdose have escalated by 137 percent from 2000 to 2014 in the United States, according to a recent report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The number of drug-related deaths in 2014 was greater than any reported in past years, with more than three out of five drug overdose mortalities involving the use of opioids such as prescription opioids and heroin.
The availability of abortion services continues to be a politically and religiously contentious issue for women all around the world. While induced abortion is one of the safest medical interventions when performed in a regulated medical setting, many women in both developing and developed countries who lack access to such services resort to unsafe methods of pregnancy termination.
High rates of incarceration prevail in many U.S. communities. According to the most recent data compiled last month by the International Centre for Prison Studies, the U.S. has the second-highest incarceration rate in the world: about 698 prisoners per 100,000 residents. Numbering more than 2.2 million, the U.S. prison population is by far the largest in the world and is disproportionately comprised of young black and Hispanic men.
Lead poisoning resulting from the man-made health disaster in Flint, Mich. continues to affect a community of about 99,000 people. While Michigan’s state officials have switched back the water supply source from the Flint River to the Detroit water system fed by Lake Huron, the aged pipes of many service lines, corroded by the polluted water from Flint River, are still leaching lead into the water. This has forced Flint residents to rely on donations of bottled water for clean drinking water.
The current Zika outbreak has spread to more than 20 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that it will infect another four million people by the year’s end.
By JOAN YEA
Advancements in antiretroviral therapy (ART) in recent years have enabled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients to benefit from fewer side effects as well as less stringent dosing schedules.
People usually go to the hospital to treat an illness, but staying in a hospital for too long may cause its own health problems. Hospitalization-induced malnutrition and sleep deprivation can cause significant physiological stress in patients, according to a recent commentary published in the journal BMJ Quality & Safety on Sept. 8.
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a wing-shaped structure in the hypothalamus, operates as the body’s internal clock, synchronizing circadian rhythms of separate tissues to generate an approximately 24-hour circadian cycle for the entire body.
In an era where the Affordable Care Act has enabled more than 16.4 million uninsured Americans to gain healthcare coverage, there has been a concomitant rise in the demand for higher quality care. Hospitals are being held more accountable for the outcomes of patients, especially those 65 and older who would benefit from a more coordinated healthcare system.
Streptococcus pneumoniae, a bacterium that can induce pneumococcal pneumonia, has for long been the scourge of post-influenza patients. As one of the major pathogens responsible for secondary bacterial pneumonia, S. pneumoniae, even in this modern age of antibiotics, continues to pose a significant threat to patients weakened by influenza.